Middlesbrough is a large town in north east England. The town is situated on the south bank of the River Tees, in the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire. Middlesbrough is part of the Teesside conurbation and had a population of 391,000 in 2022. The town was founded in 1830 by John Walker, a local businessman, who named it after the town of Middlesbrough in his native County Durham.
The town became a county borough within the North Riding of Yorkshire in 1889, and it became part of the County Borough of Teesside, which was incorporated as part of Cleveland in 1974. Middlesbrough became a unitary authority area in 1996. The borough council unsuccessfully petitioned for city status in 2000.
The town is served by the Middlesbrough railway station and an airport, once a major hub for the steel industry, has undergone redevelopment as the Tees Valley Airport. Middlesbrough has a large number of buildings with Grade II listed status, reflecting the importance of the town's industrial past. The River Tees forms part of the borough's western border.