Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. With a population of 552,000 as of 2021, it is the tenth largest city in England. Manchester is notable for its architecture, culture, music scene and sports clubs, namely Manchester United and Manchester City. The Manchester International Festival is an annual event which features work by avant-garde artists from around the world.
Manchester was the site of the world's first railway station, opened in 1830. The Manchester Ship Canal, built in 1894 and opened in 1904, is the UK's longest canal and a valuable inland waterway. Manchester is well known for being a centre of the UK textile industry. It was one of the birthplaces of the Industrial Revolution, and its transport network provided the foundation for the region's growth as a commercial centre. Manchester's port handled 31 million tonnes of cargo in 2009, the second largest in the UK.
The University of Manchester, founded as Owens College in 1851, is recognised as one of the world's leading research institutions. The Manchester Institute of Biotechnology, established in the Faculty of Biology in 2005, is focused on the translational research and application of genomics methods to medicine. It is a centre for the development and commercialisation of new technologies through collaboration with industry and has generated significant income for the university.